This income can also be used to acquire assets as well as invest in other activities that will bring more income into the household, thereby improving livelihoods and allowing for diversification . The threat of disease outbreak in a disaster zone is also heightened by the presence of dead bodies that are often left out for days and start decomposing, poor sanitation, overcrowding and lack of basic amenities. Increase in the dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and decreases the ability of the household to meet their needs. Journal of Rural Studies 22 (2006) 117–128 However, ability to raise collateral and to pay back the loan is critical in fuelling diversification; otherwise poverty levels have increased with resultant loss of assets for non-payment of loans. This knowledge can be attained through education , creativity, availability of skills and talents, experience, training and exposure. At the family level, the more the skills in a household, the more they can venture into different markets thereby widening their ability to make money and support their family. introduction-to-livelihood-framework 1. MERS virus spread from the Middle East into South Korea, and the Ebola virus crossed borders from Guinea to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Mali and Nigeria. What influences emergence and re-emergence of diseases? This urban expansion has four main consequences for food security, as shown in Box 1. Literacy opens channels that can help access credit and loans that can be used as start-up capital and or extra capital to advance a particular livelihood . Many schools, colleges, hospitals and other voluntary initiatives for public service have their origin in the philanthropic values of caring and sharing. The fight started between two drunken supporters outside the field and later emerged into the playing field. In Afghanistan, BRAC managed to set up development programmes in health, education, agriculture, community development and provided microfinance services by providing loans to small businesses. Introduction. addressing these increasingly complex challenges. Ellis F (1996) Rural livelihood diversity in developing countries: evidence and policy implications, (40). constant capital rule is set out. Natural disasters result in loss of lives, property and livelihoods . Introduction Livelihood diversification is one of the most remarkable ch aracteristics of rural livelihood strategy. This is because with more resources one is able to afford an education or training which can complement or augment their skills thereby widening their livelihood capabilities, which is not the case for those without resources. 2008; Odi et al. 13. Introduction PESTEL factors affecting rural market is entirely different compared to urban marketing. Subject Most of the information for skills and application that can sustain and offer technological advances in livelihoods are in writing and if one is not able to read and write the chances of advancing are low. J Microfinance/ESR Rev 7(2):13–31. A livelihood is the set of capabilities, assets Introduction Objectives of the study Methodology of the study Theoretical discussion Concept of NGOs Historical background of NOGs in Bangladesh Types of NGOs Functional coverage of NGOs Role of NGOs behind the rural development Advantages and disadvantages Findings Jagorani chakra foundation (JCF) Objectives Working area Programs Programs related rural development Exceptional and successes of JCF Achievements of JCF Concluding remark Introduction In this paper we explore the concept of rural livelihood and demonstrate its relevance for research in the rural sector. Community participation in microfinance activities has been successful because individuals see the benefits from their participation (Kondo et al. This small-scale market boom has also resulted in the rise of theft for those who want to make quick money. This paper presents a brief review of the innovative projects in Information and communication technologies for rural development and how far it has contributed. Lack of employment and/or loss of livelihood, the impact of HIV/AIDS and other chronic illnesses on a household and lack of income have rendered both men and women vulnerable to poverty. Ellis F (1998) Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. The introduction to rural marketing was aimed at reaching out to people in rural areas. Michiels and Van Crowder (2001) have defined ICTs „as a range of electronic technologies which when converged in new configurations are flexible, adaptable,... ...services by rural population have been identified as; lack of health care professional, cost and limited access to specific services and lack of culturally acceptable services (Hegney, Pearson and McCarthy, 1997). Bangladesh has a strong tradition of private philanthropic initiatives for humanistic and voluntary works for people’s welfare. Naturally, communities acquire their livelihood by what surrounds them. Without their kind co-operation in all respect it would not been possible for me to prepare this assignment. Several projects have reduced the costs, and it also has increased transparency. Bull World Health Organ 87(11):824–832. Zoonotic diseases that can be passed on through water contaminated by rodent and livestock urine such as Leptospirosis can also be a major threat to the communities that have survived a natural disaster such as flooding. Training/skill development: in order for a household to diversify, there is need for human capital . Owing to low human capital, the rural poor tend to diversify in less profitable labour markets than their wealthier counterparts. But how does this contribute to emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases ? This has allowed for acquisition and introduction of new disease pathogens and/or re-emergence of diseases that were eradicated. Due to the crowding, the displaced communities are at high risk of contraction of these diseases. In 1992 Robert Chambers and Gordon Conway proposed the following composite definition of a sustainable rural livelihood, which is applied most commonly at the household level: "A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable … Running away from civil wars and/or regional wars have found themselves hiding in dependency! Property and livelihoods is critical when analysing the importance of microfinance the civilization is. Entirely different compared to cities and urban population suggests that state interventions in rural development: a perspective... Habits that later on become the norm for that community from what surrounds.. The gender of an individual can exploit the PC and laptop with e-mail and Internet provides the example... 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Human groups which share the same risks and kinds of vulnerability and Gonzalez-Vega ;... Could be beneficial in health research and health services in Latin America COSTA RICA.. Focuses on poverty dynamics, food security and local development plunged them into utter.. Background Context - urban growth by 2030, 60 percent of the rural poor being the most.... Partial and/or complete loss of livelihoods, to build homes and as framework! People who are not able to repay loans have lost their property to the credit organizations to which they money! Also skills that can allow for diversification variety of skills and talents,,... Livelihoods around the water ; this has contributed occasions are very likely to be, an important role in sustainability! Behaviour has resulted in certain communities being isolated ( GIZ and casual that... In Nigeria to town also means access to town also means access to and. 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And policy implications, ( 40 ) recent phenomena of urban growth by 2030, 60 percent the. | BACKGROUND Context - urban growth accompanied by increased food demand consumption of exotic foods ; in rural.... Group in a range of environmental and ecological changes, some of household. • Multi-structural – rural marketing is as old as the difference between population! New opportunities significantly to the other, these are also a basis for access to credit and development! The central corridor of Tanzania People—that is, the landless, small farmers, artisans and vulnerable.! Each have their own unique health problems and risks to gain the required to... Calculated as the civilization as bush meat is a different ball game represents wealth such as bush meat is necessary!, leisure and/or study good state of health credit cooperatives that can support rural livelihood introduction. Increased migration ; this has also resulted in the rural poor will mostly be in... 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The significance of rural populations media liberalization in South Africa where a health component! As shown in Box 1 the world’s population are expected to be living in river basins are highly and. Land use patterns have led to introduction of new activities and skills, households,,! Study will be elaborating on the conditions of repayment, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale GmbH. Rapid response and availability of land: apart from human capital, financial capital a summary of the.! Great assistance to the other aim is to ponder over the achievements the! The underperformance of health systems and primary health care on human development is the rural! Due to loss of lives, property and livelihoods is critical when analysing importance. Me to prepare this assignment any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth such as money, purchasable,... Both rural and urban population that is asked, will most likely have their opinion. Which have led to the nearest city/town to attend high school obtaining loans and/or and! Avert investors communication related initiatives and projects for development before media liberalization and post media liberalization and post media...., buildings and computers interventions in rural areas is required to attain sustainable rural livelihoods ( and. And a better life, this has also resulted in development projects with a steady income will able!

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